Virulence Factors

 Virulence Factors

1. Pili

Pili are useful for the attachement of the organisms on the epithe-lial cells.

2. Capsule

Capsules down regulate the secretion of cytokine. They inhibit leukocyte accumulation. They also induce the suppressor T cells and inhibit lymphoproliferation

3. Intracellular residence

The following microorganisms reside intracellularly and try to avoid host defense mechanisms. They are M.tuberculosis, M.leprae, S.typhi, T.gondii, L.donovani, H.capsulatum.

4. Production of enzymes

Some enzymes like proteases, DNAses, and phospholipases are produced and they help in disruption of cell structures and to hydrolyse host tissues. In Aspergillus species proteases help in invasion.

5.Toxins

Bacteria produce both exotoxins and endotoxins which play and important role in the pathogenesis of disease

Exotoxins are produced by some organisms like C.diphtheriae, C.tetani, C.botulinum. The exotoxin produced by V.cholerae acts on the intestine and is called enterotoxin. The toxin produced by one type of Escherichia coli causes acute gastroenteritis.

Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide cell wall of gram negative bacteria. They induce production of cytokines by different cells of im-mune system. Coagulation system and complement system are acti-vated. They also affect various organs like kidney, heart and lungs leading to organ failure.

6. Antigenic variation

Microorganisms evade the host immune responses by changing their surface antigens. N.gonorrhoeae very often changes its outer mem-brane protein. Antigenic drift and shift are common in influenza viruses. Trypanosoma brucei are covered with thick protein coats which un-dergo antigenic change during infection. Some organisms produce sur-face proteins that are similar to host proteins or coat themselves with host proteins that they are mistaken for part of the host itself

The distinction between the commensal and the organisms asso-ciated with disease is subtle. The definition of normal flora or pathogen is derived from the resultant complex interaction between the organism and its host.

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Lipid and Protein chemical composition of cell membrane

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Lampbrush chromosomes - History, Definition, Structure, Functions

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Homopolysaccharides

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Water as Universal Solvent

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Protein - Types, Structure, Function Relationship

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Life Cycle of Funaria – Vegetative and Sexual Life Cycle

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): Structure, Chargaff's Rule

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Cancer Risk Factors - Smoking, Diet, Genetics, Occupation, Environment

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Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – Abnormal GTT Curve, Factors Affecting GTT

Bleeding Time – Principle, Procedure, Reagents, Discussion

DAM Method for Estimation of Urea in Urine

Fiske and Subbarow’s Method - Phosphorus in Serum and Urine

Plasma and Serum Isolation Methods

Urine Crystals – Types, Shapes, Color, Causes

O-toluidine Method for Estimation of Blood Glucose

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Clinical Laboratory - Definition, Levels, Organization, and Structure

Estimation of Chloride in the Urine and Serum: Principle and Procedure

Blood Grouping (ABO) - Principle, Requirements, and Procedure

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Complement Fixation Reaction

Types of Signalling - Paracrine, Endocrine, Autocrine, Direct Signaling

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Analysis of pH of Waste Water Sample – Procedure, Result, Interpretation

Dissolved Oxygen analysis Winkler Method

Analysis of total, permanent and temporary hardness of water

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Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) for Waste Water Analysis

Determination of Water Turbidity by Nephelometry

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Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes

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Human Evolution - Origin of mammals, Human Ancestral Forms

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

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Food Preservation by Low Temperatures - Chill Storage, Freezing

Factors that Influence Growth of Microorganisms in Food

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Genetically Modified Foods and Crops - Advantages and Disadvantages

Genetic Engineering in Production of Medicine

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Sex linkage in Drosophila - Limited, Linked, Influenced Traits

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Cresyl violet staining - Principle, Procedure, Result, interpretation

Nissl staining - Procedure, Result, interpretation

Congo Red Stain - Principle, Procedure, Result, Interpretation

Toluidine Blue Stain - Protocol for Mast Cells

Ziehl Neelsen Staining - Principle, Procedure, Results

Von Kossa and Alcian Blue Stain For Calcium Deposits or Salts

Von Kossa Staining Protocol for Calcium Deposits

Van Gieson Staining Protocol Collagen and Smooth Muscle

Toluidine Blue Staining Protocol for Staining Mast Cells

Southgate's Mucicarmine Staining Protocol for Mucin

PicroSirius red Staining Protocol for Collagen - NotesHippo

Safranin-O Staining Protocol for Cartilage

Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG) Staining Protocol for Elastic Tissue Fibers

Tris Buffered Saline (TBS): Preparation and Recipe

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Masson's Trichrome Staining Protocol for Collagen Fibers

Pap Stain Procedure in Cytology

PAS Staining Protocol for Frozen Sections

Infection - Epidemiology, Transmission, Etiology, Diagnosis

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Staphylococcus aureus – Virulence, Pathogenicity, Diagnosis, Treatment

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Viral replication - Bacteriophages, Animal Cells, Plant Cells

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Virus Diseases in Humans - Airborne, Food, Water Transmission

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Bacterial Growth Curve - Phases, Alterations of the cells

The Operon Concept - History, Components of Operon

Antimicrobial Chemical Agents - 10 Important Agents

Measuring Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Chemical Agents

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Spontaneous Generation Theory Explains the Origin of Life

Notes on Disproving Spontaneous Generation - NotesHippo

Theory of Biogenesis Definition and Examples - NotesHippo

Role of Microbes in Industrial Products

10 common Virus Disease in Humans Symptom, Prevention, Treatment

Anaerobic jars - Procedure, Catalyst, Indicator, Disadvantage

Amoeba Locomotion - Simple Mechanism Of Amoeba Locomotion

Locomotion in Bacteria - Flagellar, Spirochetal, Gliding movement

Experiments in support and against Spontaneous Generation

Simple Staining Technique – Definition, Principle, Procedure

Eubacteria – Meaning, Types, and Examples

Staphylococcus aureus - Biochemical Test, Identification

Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells

Pure Culture of Microorganisms - 5 Methods

Economic Importance of Fungi - Positive and Negative Roles

Bacterial Spores - Definition, Sporulation Stages, Germination, Uses

Methods for Isolating Pure Culture

Economic Importance of Fungi in Industry

Economic Importance of Fungi in Medicine

Aerobic Respiration Reaction

Three Domain System of Classification

Opportunistic Microorganisms with Examples

Catalase Test: Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Limitations

Urease Test: Principle. Procedure, Results, Limitations

MacConkey agar – Principle, Applications, Preparation

Benedict’s test - Principle, Procedure, Result Interpretation

Methyl Red test – Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Interpretation

Acid fast staining – Principle, Procedure, Steps, Results

Capsule Staining – Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Results

Voges Proskauer Test – Principle, Procedure, Results

Indole Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Interpretation

Phenol Red Fermentation Test – Principle, Procedure, Interpretation

Mannitol Salt Agar - Principle, Composition, Procedure, Results

Coagulase Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Limitations

Hanging Drop Method Protocol for Bacterial Motility

Heat and Alcohol Smear Fixation Protocol for Bacterial Culture

Pyruvate Broth Test - Principle, Procedure, Interpretation, Uses

Butyrate Disk Test – Principle, Procedure, Interpretation, and Limitations

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Lipase Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Beta Lactamase Test - Principle, Procedure, Result Interpretation

Starch Casein Agar - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Applications

MRS Broth Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Interpretation

Nitrate Reduction Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Interpretation

Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSIA) Test -Principle, Procedure

Simmons Citrate Agar - Principle, Procedure, Result, Limitations

Nutrient Agar - Principle, Composition, Applications, Limitations

Gelatin Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications

PYR test - Principle, Procedure, Results and Limitations

Blood Agar - Principle, Composition, Preparation, and Applications

Oxidase Test Protocol - Principle, Procedure, Reagents, Result

Albert stain - Principle, Procedure, Applications, and Limitations

Simple Stain - Principle, Materials, Procedure, Result

Carbohydrate Fermentation Test - Principle, Procedure

Negative Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result observation

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Production Test: Principle, Procedure

OF Test (Oxidative Fermentation Test): Principle, Procedure

DNase Test - Principle, Procedure

Novobiocin Susceptibility Test – Principle, Procedure, Results

Ames test - Principle, Procedure, Observation, Advantages

Starch Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Spread Plate Method - Principle, Procedure, Uses, Limitations

Litmus Milk Medium Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Kligler Iron Agar - Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Casein Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Serial Dilution - Definition, Procedure, Calculation, Uses

Gene: Definition, Structure, Simple and Complex Transcription

Difference between Coding and Non-Coding DNA

Eukaryotic Chromosomes – Structure, Organization, Components

Mobile DNA - Mobile Genetic Elements in Human Genome

DNA Mutation – Definition, Causes, Consequences, Types

Meselson and Stahl Experiment - Mode of DNA Replication

DNA Replication Enzymes - Structure, Function

DNA Replication - Definition, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanism

Watson and Crick DNA Model

DNA Transcription – Definition, Steps, Post-transcriptional Modifications

Purine and Pyrimidine Bases of Nucleic Acids

Nucleosides and Nucleotides - Structure and Properties

The Operon Concept - History, Components of Operon

Cell Cycle – Definition, Phases, Regulation, Checkpoints

LAC Operon - Definition, Structure, Conditions, Regulations

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon - Definition, Structure, Functions, Regulation

RT-PCR - Principle, Reagents, and Procedure

Virus, Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic Chromosomes - NotesHippo

Polytene Chromosomes - Definition, History, Structure, Functions

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): Structure, Chargaff's Rule

Genes: Definition, Mechanism, Structure, characteristics, Functions

Different Types of Genes

RNA Isolation Protocol - Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Concentration

RNA Isolation Protocol - Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Concentration

Central Dogma of Life

RNA Processing Events - 5' Cap, Poly-A Tail, Splicing

Patch-Clamp Technique - Principle, Configurations, Types, Applications

Mitotic Phase of Cell Cycle - Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Mendelian Inheritance in Humans

mRNA Processing Steps in Eukaryotes

Importance of Taxonomy, Rules, Identifying Characteristics

Structure of Amoeba Proteus, functions, and its Life cycle

Meiosis in grasshopper testis - Identification of different stage

Ocular Micrometer and Stage Micrometer

Internal Anatomy of Earthworm Diagram

8 Characteristics of Life biology: Defining characteristics

Sense Organs of Earthworm

Earthworm Excretory System

Reproductive System of an Earthworm, Copulation, Cocoon formation

Digestive System in Frogs and Physiology of Digestion

Frog Digestive Glands

Circulatory System of Frog

Urogenital System of Frog Explained with Diagram

Economic Importance of Earthworm

Digestive System of Earthworms and Physiology of Digestion

Nervous System of Earthworms

Circulatory System of Earthworms

Morphology and Anatomy of Frogs

Reproductive System of Frog - Male and Female Frog

Pseudocoelomate Animals - Definition and Examples

Incomplete Metamorphosis - Stages and Examples

Classification of Living Organisms

Animal locomotion - Lower Animals, Higher Animals and Plants

3 Types of Heterotrophic Nutrition

Process Of Nutrition in Animals - Definition, Types

Asexual Reproduction Explained With Examples

How Do Frogs Breathe On Land And In Water?

Lac Insect Culture - Cultivation, Types, and Uses

Fish By-products and Their Uses

Poisonous and Non-Poisonous Snakes Difference

Developmental Stages of Chick Embryo Zoology

Types of Scales in Fishes with Diagram

Habit and Habitat of Pigeon

Reproduction in Protozoa with Diagram

Bombyx Mori Biology and Life Cycle (Mulberry Silkworm)

External Morphology of Bombyx Mori

Economic Importance of Fishes

Sexual Vs Asexual Reproduction

Scientific Investigation Steps in Order

Difference between Heterotrophs and Autotrophs

Herbivores, Omnivores, and Carnivores Animals

Levels of Organization of Living Things in Order

Human Body Cavities and Their Organs

Protista Kingdom Classification

Types of Microorganisms and Their Characteristics

Aerobic Respiration Reaction

 

 


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